Randolph Cabral’s Weblog

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Archive for April, 2008

You’re Not A “Real Programmer”

Posted by Randolph Cabral on Wednesday, April 30, 2008

I recently met up with a fellow programmer buddy of mine who has been working for a software development group that has gone through several managers recently.  Each manager, varying in both development and management experience, had varying ideas on how to approach the requirements for a specific project.  Frequent turn over in management continued to complicate things.  Eventually, they found a manager that was willing to stick it out.  Unfortunately, his management style doesn’t exactly create a creative environment where developers can thrive. 

The group has been charged with converting an existing windows forms client application for the web.  After exhaustive research into which web technology platform they wanted to develop on the manager decided to go against the tide and force the group to implement the new web application in C++.  Any developer in the group who expressed a difference in opinion was quickly shut down with the manager hinting at the notion that “real programmers” code in C++.

I have no problem with C++, but given that the requirements call for a web application, I’m going to have to respectfully disagree.  And what’s wrong with managed code anyway?  I guess only those who know how to manage resources manually are “real programmers”.  Many successful enterprise applications, both for the web and for windows, are written in Java or C#.  There are plenty of open source web development frameworks written for Java that increase productivity incredibly.  Similarly, ASP.NET with C# creates a powerful way to programatically access HTML controls. 

In other words, we have power tools now that help us with the construction process.  Don’t get me wrong, there’s still a valid and relevant use for the handsaw.  Building a house is not one of those uses.

Posted in C#, General, Object Oriented Programming, Programming, Software Architecture | Tagged: , , , | 1 Comment »

Exploring N-Tier Architecture with LINQ to SQL (Part 2 of n)

Posted by Randolph Cabral on Thursday, April 24, 2008

Part 2 – The DataContext

To get us started on the right foot, let’s take a quick look at what is needed to write a custom DataContext class.  What’s really remarkable about the sample code below is that it is complete.  Simply deriving from the System.Data.Linq.DataContext base class and providing a connection string gives us all of the functionality we need to work effectively with the data entities and the data source.  Obviously, the connection string should be abstracted into a configuration file and read in.  The code below was written this way to illustrate how easy it is to create a custom context for your project.  In our case, we’ll use the IDE and SQLMetal to generate our DataContext class which adds properties to expose each table dragged onto the designer surface.  The important thing to remember is that the GetTable<TEntity>() method is exposed as a public member which I will use in my samples to illustrate its IQueryable<T> properties.

  public partial class NorthwindDataContext: System.Data.Linq.DataContext


    public MyDataContext()

      : base(“Data Source=.;Initial Catalog=Northwind;Integrated Security=True”)




LINQ to SQL’s DataContext is both a blessing and a curse all at once.  I say this because it gives us a lot of out-of-the-box functionality with object state tracking and identity mapping, but it creates a problem when we want to separate the data layer from the business logic layer.  Imagine a typical business case where the properties of a business object are updated and then persisted to the data store.  Using an Active Record implementation, the instance of the object is created with a static factory method.  After modifying the object properties, a call to the Save() method is all that is needed to persist the state to the data store.

Customer cust = Customer.GetByCustomerId(“ALFKI”);

cust.City = “Frankfurt”;


Using LINQ to SQL’s DataContext, the pattern changes quite a bit.  Instead of a call to the static factory method on the class, as with the previous example, the entry point to retrieve an object instance changes to the DataContext.  Since there is no Save() method defined for the class, a call to SubmitChanges() on the DataContext is needed to invoke persistence logic. 

using (NorthwindDataContext ctx = new NorthwindDataContext())


  Customer cust = ctx.GetTable<Customer>().Single(c => c.CustomerID == “ALFKI”);

  cust.City = “Frankfurt”;



Obviously, the Active Record implementation is concise and far easier to read when compared with the DataContext sample.  But that’s barely scratching the surface of potential issues.  Most troubling to me is that the DataContext object is now referenced in the business layer creating a strong coupling of the data and business layers.  How do we elegantly manage the DataContext without making it a first-class citizen in the business layer?  There are many different ways to approach this problem.  One way would be to wrap the context in a context manager utility class that exposes a method to load a customer entity by key.  Let’s call this class the NorthwindBusinessContext.  With the NorthwindBusinessContext class we could manage the lifecycle of a given context by implementing the IDisposable interface.  We can also ensure the integrity of context references to table entities that the DataContext exposes as shown with the GetCustomerById() method.  Lastly, the PersistState() method exposes the persistence method of the DataContext object which is, of course, necessary to invoke data store persistence logic. 

  public partial class NorthwindBusinessContext : IDisposable


    NorthwindDataContext DataContext = null;


    public NorthwindBusinessContext()


      DataContext = new NorthwindDataContext();



    public Customer GetCustomerById(string customerId)


      return DataContext.GetTable<Customer>().Single(c => c.CustomerID == customerId);



    public void PersistState()





    #region IDisposable Members


    public void Dispose()







There has been some talk about how to scope the DataContext to a specific thread/web request/execution context to help ensure the integrity of the given DataContext.  I think there is a lot of merit in researching how to scope a given DataContext, however, I will not be exploring those efforts in this post.  We’ll leave that topic for another post, perhaps in the near future.


So why go to all this trouble of writing a BusinessContext?  Why not just use the DataContext outright and skip this step?  The answer: decoupling.  By encapsulating the DataContext in a single class, we can shield ourselves from any changes that are made to the DataContext implementation.  No one can argue that a single point of failure is a lot easier to refactor than a pervasive failure.  Things are looking good so far.  We have a BusinessContext class that composes the DataContext class and encapsulates DataContext specific implementation by implementing business specific methods for loading and persisting data entities.  Luckily, all this code is not to bad to write and can easily be incorporated to a custom code generator allowing us to write only the customizations needed by the domain layer.


Now all we have left is to deal with those data entities.  We want to deal with business entities, not data entities.  How do we best create a business entity that best allows for reuse of the data entities?  In my next post we’ll explore options on how to tackle this task in a fun an arguably elegant way.


Posted in Active Record, C#, Domain Model, LINQ to SQL, Object Oriented Programming, Software Architecture | Tagged: , , , , | 3 Comments »

Exploring N-Tier Architecture with LINQ to SQL (Part 1 of n)

Posted by Randolph Cabral on Wednesday, April 23, 2008

Part 1 – Analyzing LINQ to SQL Entities

For the past six months or so I’ve been playing a lot with LINQ to SQL to dissect and examine the internals of what makes it tick.  It didn’t take long before I became a fan of LINQ to SQL, expression trees and IQueryable<T>.  Those guys at Microsoft have really hit the nail on the head with this stuff.  I started writing lots of LINQ to SQL code, debugging and watching SQL Profiler.  I had a blast trying to find ways to break it.  For the most part, it did really well in producing accurate, not always concise, SQL statements; albeit some queries could stand to be refactored.  Regardless, LINQ to SQL delivers beyond my expectations.  This is the point where I started to look for an elegant way to integrate LINQ to SQL with a classic N-Tier architecture.  Unknowingly, I took the “red pill” and I dove head first into the rabbit hole.  “How hard can this be?”, I thought to myself.

In my previous post, I compared the relative merits and challenges of the Active Record pattern with the Unit of Work pattern.  The Active Record pattern, in my opinion, creates a natural coding paradigm where business objects expose persistence behaviors as public methods.  The challenge being that Active Record implementations ranging from Ruby to Subsonic to Jammer.NET have had issues with cardinality.  Since most Active Record implementations do not implement the Identity Map pattern, lazy loading relationships in the object graph could create an infinite loop condition when recursive persistence logic is invoked.  LINQ to SQL avoids these types of issues by implementing the Unit of Work pattern through its DataContext class.  Because the DataContext tracks object state, persistence calls are batched with only those objects that need to be updated and there would be no need to traverse the object graph.  A challenge with the DataContext lies with cases where the objects become disconnected from the DataContext.  Another potential issue with the DataContext, in my opinion, is code clutter.  I personally don’t like having logic to re-attach disconnected objects to the context cluttering up my code.

Weighing both patterns and considering their benefits and disadvantages, I decided to try an experiment to marry the two patterns.  The Active Record persistence behaviors can encapsulate the logic required for re-attaching and, in turn, the Unit of Work container can handle tracking of object state and persistence.  The only thing missing is the minister and a prenup to make it official.  So off I go to try my hand at match-making.

Let’s inspect the entity class that was generated by LINQ to SQL’s code generator (SQLMetal).  Firstly, as seen in the following code sample, each generated class is adorned with a TableAttribute to create a mapping to the database table.  Additionally, the class is declared partial to allow for customizations to be kept in a separate file.  This is nice, but falls short for our desire to create a business layer on top of these data entities.  The class then implements a couple of interfaces from the System.ComponentModel namespace to support notification of property changes.  It is really nice that it doesn’t need to derive from a concrete class as this gives us the opportunity to create a custom base class that all entities can derive from should we choose to do so.  Unfortunately, the class is not adorned with the SerializableAttribute.  The designer allows you to control the “Serialization Mode”, but this does not do what I was expecting it to do.  Setting this property to “Unidirectional” causes the properties of the data entities to get adorned with a DataMemberAttribute which is a WCF XML serialization method.

//LINQ to SQL’s mapping attribute implementation


public partial class Customer : INotifyPropertyChanging, INotifyPropertyChanged




Looking further in the class I found the public property mapping implementation.  I was surprised to find its mapping attributes were adorned to the public properties (below).   I was surprised because this meant that I could hide the mapping by simply deriving from the class and declaring a new property with the same name.  What about polymorphism? I know what you’re thinking, this is supposed to be a data entity not a domain entity.  I agree.  However, I’m a believer in code reuse.  If the data model entities closely match the domain model, why not derive from those entities to maximize code reuse?  Furthermore, your domain entities can completely encapsulate domain logic from the data entity without having to model yet another class that implements all of the same properties.  In other words, you get all of the data without all of the work for free.  All that’s left to do is to write the business logic in a class that elegantly holds only business layer implementation.  So naturally, I was surprised to see the mapping made at the property.

//LINQ to SQL’s mapping attribute implementation

[Column(Storage = “_CompanyName”, DbType = “NVarChar(40) NOT NULL”, CanBeNull = false)]

public string CompanyName


  get { … }


I later realized that LINQ to SQL deliberately creates mappings this way in order to support deferred execution.  Because the public property is the referenced member of the class in the expression tree, a simple reflection call is all that is needed to retrieve the attribute instance.  Formatting a SQL command statement becomes possible this way and is, indeed, a very nifty way of storing schema details without the need for an external mapping file (as found with the Hibernate mapping paradigm).  I prefer having an inline attribute-based approach to Hibernate’s XML-based mapping files.  I’ve always felt that having the mapping definitions inline with code was a cleaner way to implement mappings as the definitions are always only a click or two away.  However, I do recognize the simplicity and elegance of an external mapping file as well as having the ability to cache the map in memory for performance.

As a quick test, I tried to derive from the LINQ to SQL entity and run a query from the context with out success.  The reflection call that discovers the mapping attribute does not flatten the hierarchy and can’t retrieve the base property reference.  Bummer.  Microsoft, if you’re reading this, please modify the GetProperty() method call to include a binding flag value of “BindingFlags.FlattenHierarchy”.  I think it would be really cool to have business objects that derive from data objects that are context connected.  Maybe the answer is to wait for the ADO.NET Entity Framework for this type of support.

Next, we find the associations section.  This is where relationships to other entities are made.  Here we are introduced to the AssociationAttribute and the EntitySet<T> object.  The EntitySet<T> came as a surprise to me because I was expecting a simple Collection<T> or even simpler, an array of Order objects to handle relationships.  According to the MSDN documentation for EntitySet<T>, it provides deferred loading and relationship maintenance for the one-to-one and one-to-many collection relationships for LINQ to SQL applications.

[Association(Name=“Customer_Order”, Storage=“_Orders”, OtherKey=“CustomerID”)]

public EntitySet<Order> Orders




    return this._Orders;







Another relationship object that is found in the generated code is the EntityRef<T> class.  Again, for deferred loading purposes a specialized class is used to handle direct parent relationships.

private EntityRef<Customer> _Customer;

How do these references get instantiated? Well, with the constructor of course! Yeah, I was confused at first too.  The concept to note here is that the EntitySet<T> object is instantiated but not the actual entity until the Entity property is requested.  I’m not sure what to think of this one.  I’m guessing they wanted to push the responsibility of tracking when a related entity has been requested to another class in an effort to keep things clean with the entity class implementation.  Certainly, this could have been achieved by adding more properties to the class.

public Customer()


  this._Orders = new EntitySet<Order>(new Action<Order>(this.attach_Orders), new Action<Order>(this.detach_Orders));



So far so good.  The entities generated by LINQ to SQL are relatively straight forward and relationships to other entities are handled relatively elegantly.  The class does not derive from another concrete class and there is no data access logic to muddy up the waters.  Inline attributes and the use of custom relationship classes make up the list of less desirable items, but shouldn’t impede our efforts to create an N-Tier architecture.  Out of the box, LINQ to SQL provides an excellent way to quickly model a data layer with rich relationship structures.

In the next post, we’ll take a look at the DataContext class and evaluate how we could best take advantage of its object tracking capabilities.  I’ll also explore writing a context manager class that helps ease the pains in dealing with the DataContext.

Posted in Active Record, C#, Domain Model, Jammer.NET, LINQ to SQL, Object Oriented Programming, POCO, Software Architecture | Tagged: , , , , , | 2 Comments »

Active Record Vs. Unit of Work

Posted by Randolph Cabral on Thursday, April 3, 2008

Lately, I’ve been doing some research on which path to take – Active Record or a pure Domain Model using the Unit of Work pattern.  Clearly there are advantages and disadvantages to both.  I’m hoping to find a good compromise between simplicity and flexibility.  When I say ‘simplicity’, I’m talking about the ever-elusive ‘elegant solution’ where we are free from framework traps and anemic domain models.  As for ‘flexibility’, I’m referring to the ability to quickly change delivered functionality without having to rip apart the guts of the existing code base.  The thing that I keep getting hung up on is deciding which of the two best fits these goals.  I’ve used both approaches and like them both, but this is one of those debates that has no clear winner.  Let’s take a closer look at each approach.

The Active Record Pattern

In this model, an entity and its properties are directly mapped to a database table and its columns.  Additionally, every entity is implemented with its own insert, update, delete and select (CRUD) behaviors.  Method names like Save, Delete and Load are commonplace with many Active Record implementations.  Rounding out the package adds various static methods that expose query capabilities to allow filtering.  Having these behaviors included with the entities provides a convenient way of persisting state back to a data source.  I have used this pattern a lot and have had many successful projects that I credit the pattern for.  Needless to say, as with most solutions, it isn’t perfect.  There are a few cases where this pattern can create some interesting challenges.

Consider this case:  Cardinality, A.K.A. relationships with other entities.   Think of the classic customer and order example.  A customer can have many orders which is to say that the customer object has a one-to-many relationship with order objects.  Remember, the Active Record pattern exposes public Save methods on both the customer object and the order object.  What would you expect to happen when you call the Save method on the customer object?  Certainly the customer object will be saved to the database, but what about the orders?  If you’re using Ruby’s Active Record implementation, the orders that are associated with the customer object may or may not be saved depending on whether the customer’s Save method call is an initial or subsequent call.  Using Jammer.NET’s implementation, the associated orders are not saved at all.  The developer must take action by either modifying the Save method on the customer object to handle cascade saving or by calling the Save method on the orders collection manually.

The Unit of Work Pattern

According to Martin Fowler’s anemic domain model anti-pattern, the domain model should only have objects that are named after the nouns in the domain space and connected to each other with rich relationship structures.  Furthermore, the behaviors of each object should model only those rules that are domain space specific.  This means that the Active Record pattern violates this rule because CRUD behaviors are forms of data store persistence logic not domain space logic.  Going by this definition, we must implement persistence using the Unit of Work pattern.  Two great examples of this pattern is implemented by Hibernate and Microsoft’s LINQ to SQL technology.  Hibernate and LINQ to SQL take a sort of hybrid approach which combines both the Active Record pattern’s metadata mapping and the Unit of Work pattern.  This hybrid approach creates a very clean model for handling persistence regardless of cardinality between entity objects.  Using LINQ to SQL, the entities, for the most part, adhere to the notion of POCOs which are persistence ignorant.  Great right? Unfortunately, as with the Active Record approach, this model is also not without its challenges.

Consider this case: Objects that become disconnected from its Unit of Work container.  Let’s assume that you are writing a web application and you’re coding up a three step registration wizard.  Ideally, having the UoW container stay in scope through completion of the wizard is preferred.  Unfortunately, that may not be the best idea if your application needs have as light a footprint on memory usage as possible.  Considering this, you decide to let the UoW container go out of scope once your business objects are loaded causing the business objects to become disconnected.  Finally, the registration wizard reaches its last step which is to persist the state of the registration business object to the data store.  Because the UoW container got garbage collected a new container instance must be created and the business object must be re-attached.  I know what you’re probably thinking, “This logic is not so hard to write.  Why all the heartburn?”  The problem I have is with the additional lines of code that must be written to re-attach the entities.  These lines of code are entirely house keeping items that, in my opinion, muddy up the code.  In my opinion, this pattern also does not code as naturally as the Active Record pattern.  However, I do think it’s the better pattern in the sense that related entities are automatically handled by the UoW container.

Sound Off!

So what do you think?  Which pattern gets your vote?  Have I missed anything?  Help me to choose which way to go.  I’m sure this debate will likely live on for many years and I look forward to hearing from all of you.

Posted in Active Record, C#, Domain Model, Jammer.NET, LINQ to SQL, Object Oriented Programming, POCO, Software Architecture | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments »